Rose is a type of shrub of the genus Rosa as well as the name of the flower produced by this plant. Wild roses are made up of more than 100 species, most of which grow in the cool northern hemisphere. Rose species are usually thorny shrubs or climbing plants that can grow up to 2 to 5 metres high. Although rarely found, the height of the pink plant that spreads to other plants can reach 20 meters.
Most species have leaves 5-15 cm long with two opposite leaves (pennées). Leaves composed of at least 3, 5, 9, 13 leaflets and leaves of stipulat, oval-shaped, penneled reinforcements, with marginal edges, tapered at the ends of leaves and spiny on the stems close to the ground. Roses are not really tropical plants, most species lose their entire leaves and only a few species in Southeast Asia still have green leaves all year round.
The flowers consist of 5 crowns with the exception of Rosa sericea which has only 4 crowns. Among the colors possessed by roses are white, pink, yellow and blue in some species. The ovaries are at the bottom of petals and petal leaves.
Flowers produce aggregated fruits (growing from a flower with many pistils) called cynorrhodons. Each pistil develops into a single fruit (akène), while a single collection of fruit is wrapped in fruit flesh on the outside. Widely open-flowered species invite more bees or other insects to contribute to pollination and therefore tend to produce more fruit. Nesting roses produce flowers with tightly closed tops, making pollination difficult. Some roses are red, with a few exceptions, such as Rosa pimpinellifolia, which produces dark purple to black.
Some species, such as Rosa canina and Rosa rugosa, produce cynorrhodons that are very rich in vitamin C and are even among the richest sources of natural vitamin C. Cynorhodons prefer fruit birds, which help spread rose seeds without feces. Some bird species, such as finches, also eat rose seeds.
In general, the rose has a hook-shaped spine that serves as a handle to climb to other plants. Some species that grow wild in sandy soils in coastal areas such as Rosa rugosa and Rosa pimpinellifolia adapt to straight spines such as needles that can be used to reduce animal damage, retain windswept sand and protect the roots from erosion. Although protected by thorns, the deer does not appear to be afraid and often damages the rose plant. Some species of roses have thorns that do not grow and are not sharp.
Roses can be infected with several diseases such as leaf rust, which is the most serious disease. The cause is the fungus Phragmidium mucronatum, responsible for leaf loss. Less dangerous diseases such as mildew flour are caused by the fungus Sphaerotheca pannosa, while black spot disease is characterized by black spots on the leaves caused by the fungus Diplocarpon rosae.
Roses are also used to feed the larvae of several lepidopteran species.
- Roses grow well in temperate regions, although some cultivars resulting from the graft method may grow in subtropical or tropical climates. source of vitamin C. Rose oil is one of the essential oils of distillation and evaporation of the leaves of the collar to make a fragrance. Roses can also be used for tea, jelly and jam.
- Mawar Taman is generally classified into 3 large groups:
- Wild roses: originally came from simple and wild flower shapes, known to man since antiquity. Some of the main species of roses mentioned above and some of their hybrids are examples of wild roses.
- Old Garden Roses: a cross-plant before the introduction of hybrid tea in 1867. The shape of the flower is unique and smells good. Here are the types of Old Garden roses ranked in order of age of the oldest:
- o Alba: “white rose” crossed by Rosa arvensis and Rosa alba. Alba is the oldest example of the Rose of the Gardens, brought to England by the ancient Romans. Flowering once a year. Example: “Semi-plena,” “White Rose of York.”
- o Gallica: the result of a cross between Rosa gallica native to central and southern Europe. Flowering once in the summer. Example: “Cardinal de Richelieu,” “Charles de Mills,” “Rosa Mundi” (Rosa gallica versicolor).
- o Damask – imported from Persia in Europe by Robert de Brie around 1254 and 1276. Summer damasks (cross between Gallica and Rosa phoenicea roses) bloom once in the summer. Autumn Damasks (a cross between Gallica and Rosa moschata) blooms in autumn. Example: “Isfahan” and “Madame Hardy.”
- o Centifolia or also known as Provence: literally “thousand crowns” is the result of glorification in the 17th century in the Netherlands. Bloom once a year, for example: ‘Centifolia’ and ‘Paul Ricault’.
- o Moss: always close to Centifolia, the stems and leaves of the petals are covered with green moss. Flowering once a year. Example: ‘Countess of Murinais’, ‘Old Pink Moss’.
- o China: can bloom several times throughout the summer until late autumn. There are four types (‘Slater’s Crimson China’ 1792, ‘Pink Chinese Parsons’ 1793, ‘Hume’s Blush China’ (1809) and Yellow Tea Scented China ‘Parks’ 1824) that were introduced to Europe in the late 19th century These types are then glorified in Old Garden roses which can bloom several times, such as ‘Old Chinese Blush’ and ‘Mutabilis’.
- o Portland: named in memory of the Duke of Portland receiving roses from Italy in 1800). The roses often called “Portland Rose” (another name: Rosa paestana or “Rose of the Four Seasons”) are the ancestors of Portland roses. Example: “James Veitch,” “Rose de Rescht,” “The Portland Rose.”
- o Bourbon: roses from the island of Bourbon (now called Reunion, a French colony in the Indian Ocean) were introduced to France in 1823. The results of the crossing of ‘Autumn Damask’ and ‘Old Blush China’. Flowering several times. Example: ‘Louise Odier’, ‘Mrs. Pierre Oger ‘,’ Zéphirine Drouhin’.
- o Perpetual Hybrid: the roses often found in England in the Victorian era are from Bourbon. Flowering several times. Example: ‘Ferdinand Pichard’, ‘Queen of Violets’.
- o Tea: Roses from the cross between Hume’s Blush China or Parks’ “Yellow Tea Scented with Yellow Tea” and various types of Bourbon and Hazelnut. Flowering several times, even if it doesn’t always smell good like tea. Example: “Lady Hillingdon.”
- o Bermuda – “Mysterious” Roses (Bermuda -“Mysterious” Bermuda): group of several dozen Bermuda roses cultivated for at least a century in Bermuda when they were “discovered”. It is very likely that the Bermuda rose is a branch or cultivar of the old rose garden that was discarded as it was considered unusable. Bermuda roses have great economic value as they can be planted in tropical and semi-tropical regions. This type of rose can bloom in hot and humid weather. Resistant to damage caused by nematodes and black patches that threaten the cultivation of roses in hot and humid climates. Bermuda roses are called “mysterious roses” because the original name of this type is no longer known and receives only a name based on the name of the owner of the park.
- Climbing roses: groups that like to climb on a fence or a four-poster building, for example: Ayrshire, Climbing China, Laevigata, Sempervirens, Hazelnut, Boursault, Climbing Tea and Climbing Bourbon.
- Shrub roses: groups used to semi-climb, climb fences and four-poster buildings. The flowers are small to medium and long-lasting.
Modern Garden Roses: descendants of Old Garden roses and their varied shapes. The group is divided according to the size of the plant and the characteristics of the flower, for example: “shrub plants with large flowers” and “shrub plants with large, repeated flowers,” “group of flowers,” “climbing plants, repeated flowers” “short shrubs, in bloom once. “Most of the current model cultivars can be categorized into two groups:
o Hybrid tea: Roses are ideal for cut flowers as a single stem can produce 5 to 6 flowers. The flowers are large and graceful, have a tight petal and the edges are slightly bent (see photo), often planted in small gardens and pinned to a coat during a wedding ceremony.
o Floribunda: small flowers that are groups of 10 or more flowers on a stem. The lush flowers stand out from afar and it is good to plant them in public parks and other open spaces.
Buck Roses: named after Professor Griffith Buck (horticultural expert at Iowa State University), who glorifies more than 90 varieties of roses. Buck roses are resistant to winter diseases and malignant tumours.
English roses: a hybrid group between Old Garden roses and modern roses. The flowers smell good and bloom several times.
Miniature roses: small flower groups (2-5 cm in diameter) and in repeated flowering.
Roses known in Indonesia are mainly hybrid and medium rose tea varieties.
Table of materials
- 1 species of rose
- 2 rose breeding
- 3 main rose breeders
- 4 rose fragrance industries
- 5 rose and rose crops
Species of roses
Species of European origin
- o Rosa alba
- o Rosa canina
- o Rosa gallica
- o Rosa chnamomea
- o Rosa cettifolia
- o Rosa spinosissma
- o Rosa wichuraiana
Species of Middle Eastern origin
- o Rosa fetida
- o Rosa fetida bicolor
- Rosa fetida perciana
- o Rosa feicikoana
- o Rosa damascena
- Species from China:
- o Rosa chinensis
- o Rosa liviegata
- o Rosa gigantea
- o Rosa primula
- o Rosa mulluganii
- o Rosa sericana péracantha
- o Rosa Hugonis
- o Rosa banksiae lutea
- Japanese species
- o Rosa Roxburghii
- Rosa Roxburghii ‘Hirthua
- o Rosa aciculaisis nipponensis
- o Rosa mulitiflora
- o Rosa wichuraina
- o Rosa uchiyamana
- o Rosa jasminoidesu
- o Rosa nitida
- o Rosa California
Rose is a horticultural product that has great economic value and is in high demand by consumers and can be grown for commercial purposes. Roses have significant economic value as cut flowers and raw material for flower oils used in the perfume industry.
Rose plants generally spread conventionally. Rose farming traditionally produces thousands of hybrids and cultivars, most of which are double flowers with superimposed crowns that go from stamens to additional crowns. Hybrid roses or cultivars are mainly made to be enjoyed by flowers in parks. 20th century rose breeders competed in size and colour to produce large, attractive flowers that have a pleasant (or odourless) smell, even though wild roses or roses were once very fragrant. Some cultivars like Rosa banksiae don’t even have thorns.
Demand for cut roses is at the forefront, but the development of cut flowers in Indonesia is relatively slow due to conventional multiplication constraints such as seasonal dependence, health problems and plant diseases and the low rate of multiplication.
This is what encourages in vitro cultivation techniques to be an alternative because it does not depend on the season because it is practiced in a closed room, with a high multiplication power, and can produce plants free of bacteria and fungi. Tissue culture is a method of isolating parts of a plant, such as a group of cells or tissues grown under asepsis conditions, so that these parts of the plant can multiply to become plants Complete. This technique is performed using part of a rose plant used as an explant (tissue, organ, embryo, single cell, protoplast, etc.) and planted on an aseptic nutritional support. The medium contains various concentrations of hormones to support the desired growth of explants.
The theory of totipotence is the basis of this tissue culture.
- Major rose breeders
- Josephine de Beauharnais
- Jules Gravereaux
- Jean-Baptiste Guillot
- Jean Pernet, Sr.
- Joseph Pernet-Ducher
- The Meilland family
- Conard-Pyle Co. (Roses Star)
- David Austin (“English rose”)
- Pink flower industry
Perfume (perfume oil) is made from rose oil, which is a type of essential oil obtained from the distillation and evaporation process of the collar leaves. The technique of distilling the rose was born in Persia and spread to Arabia and India.
Currently, the rose refining centre in Bulgaria covers 70% to 80% of the world’s rose oil, with the rest covered by Iran and Germany. The distillation of rose oil in Bulgaria, Iran and Germany uses Rosa Damascena damascena “Trigintipetala” roses, while refining in France uses the Rosa centifolia type.
Pale yellow or greyish pink oil is also called ‘Absolute Rose’ oil to distinguish it from diluted rose oil. Distillation produces rose oil in a ratio of 1/3,000 to 1/6,000 of the flower’s weight; it takes 2,000 roses to produce 1 gram of rose oil.
Rose oil is composed of fragrant geraniol, chemical formula C10H18O, with the following formula: CH3. C [CH3]: CH. CH2. CH2. C [CH3]: CH. CH2OH and l-citronellol; and camphor pink (smellless paraffin).
Roses and culture
In Western culture, roses are the symbol of love and beauty. Roses are considered sacred by several gods of Greek mythology, such as Isis and Aprodite.
The rose is the national flower of England and is used as a symbol of the British national rugby team and the Rugby Football Union in England.
In Canada, the wild rose is the flower of the province of Alberta. In the United States, roses are the flowers of the states of Iowa, North Dakota, Georgia and New York. The city of Portland, Oregon, which organizes an annual rose festival, is often referred to as “the city of Roses.”
The rose is a symbol of non-violence in Georgia during the Rose Revolution in 2003.
In addition, many painters often use roses as painting objects. A French painter named Pierre-Joseph Redouté is famous for his paintings of different species of carefully drawn roses.
For some circles, the rose is a symbol of love, this is reflected in the association. For example, someone who gives a red rose to his idol daughter implies a declaration of love. The expected answer was of course the red rose, which indicated that the girl was returning her love.