Rose is a type of shrub of the genus Rosa as well as the name of the flower produced by this plant. Wild roses are made up of more than 100 species, most of which grow in the cool northern hemisphere. Rose species are usually thorny shrubs or climbing plants that can grow up to 2 to 5 metres high. Although rarely found, the height of the Rose plant that spreads to other plants can reach 20 meters.
Most species have leaves 5-15 cm long with two opposite leaves (pennées).
Leaves composed of at least 3, 5, 9, 13 leaflets and leaves of stipulat, oval-shaped, penneled reinforcements, with marginal edges, tapered at the ends of leaves and spiny on the stems close to the ground. Roses are not really tropical plants, most species lose their entire leaves and only a few species in Southeast Asia still have green leaves all year round.
The flowers consist of 5 crowns with the exception of Rosa sericea which has only 4 crowns. Among the colors possessed by roses are white, Rose, yellow and blue in some species. The ovaries are at the bottom of petals and petal leaves.
Flowers produce aggregated fruits (growing from a flower with many pistils) called cynorrhodons. Each pistil develops into a single fruit (akène), while a single collection of fruit is wrapped in fruit flesh on the outside. Widely open-flowered species invite more bees or other insects to contribute to pollination and therefore tend to produce more fruit. Nesting roses produce flowers with tightly closed tops, making pollination difficult. Some roses are red, with a few exceptions, such as Rosa pimpinellifolia, which produces dark purple to black.
Some species, such as Rosa canina and Rosa rugosa, produce cynorrhodons that are very rich in vitamin C and are even among the richest sources of natural vitamin C. Cynorhodons prefer fruit birds, which help spread rose seeds without feces. Some bird species, such as finches, also eat rose seeds.
In general, the rose has a hook-shaped spine that serves as a handle to climb to other plants. Some species that grow wild in sandy soils in coastal areas such as Rosa rugosa and Rosa pimpinellifolia adapt to straight spines such as needles that can be used to reduce animal damage, retain windswept sand and protect the roots from erosion. Although protected by thorns, the deer does not appear to be afraid and often damages the rose plant. Some species of roses have thorns that do not grow and are not sharp.
Roses can be infected with several diseases such as leaf rust, which is the most serious disease. The cause is the fungus Phragmidium mucronatum, responsible for leaf loss. Less dangerous diseases such as mildew flour are caused by the fungus Sphaerotheca pannosa, while black spot disease is characterized by black spots on the leaves caused by the fungus Diplocarpon rosae. Roses are also used to feed the larvae of several lepidopteran species.
Roses grow well in temperate regions, although some cultivars resulting from the graft method may grow in subtropical or tropical climates. source of vitamin C. Rose oil is one of the essential oils of distillation and evaporation of the leaves of the collar to make a fragrance. Roses can also be used for tea, jelly and jam.
Rose flowering classification:
- • Kindom : Plantae
- • Divisi : Magnoliophyta
- • Kelas : Magnoliophyta
- • Ordo : Rosales
- • Famili : Rosaceae
- • Subfamili : Rosoideae
- • Genus : Rosa L.
- • Spesies : antara 50 -100
Garden roses are generally classified into 3 large groups:
Wild roses: originally came from simple and wild flower shapes, known to man since antiquity. Some of the main species of roses mentioned above and some of their hybrids are examples of wild roses.
Old Garden Roses: a cross-plant before the introduction of hybrid tea in 1867. The shape of the flower is unique and smells good. Here are the types of Old Garden roses ranked in order of age of the oldest:
- Alba: “white rose” crossed by Rosa arvensis and Rosa alba. Alba is the oldest example of the Rose of the Gardens, brought to England by the ancient Romans. Flowering once a year. Example: “Semi-plena,” “White Rose of York.”
- Gallica: the result of a cross between Rosa gallica native to central and southern Europe. Flowering once in the summer. Example: “Cardinal de Richelieu,” “Charles de Mills,” “Rosa Mundi” (Rosa gallica versicolor).
- Damask – imported from Persia in Europe by Robert de Brie around 1254 and 1276. Summer damasks (cross between Gallica and Rosa phoenicea roses) bloom once in the summer. Autumn Damasks (a cross between Gallica and Rosa moschata) blooms in autumn. Example: “Isfahan” and “Madame Hardy.”
- Centifolia or also known as Provence: literally “thousand crowns” is the result of glorification in the 17th century in the Netherlands. Bloom once a year, for example: ‘Centifolia’ and ‘Paul Ricault’.
- Moss: always close to Centifolia, the stems and leaves of the petals are covered with green moss. Flowering once a year. Example: ‘Countess of Murinais’, ‘Old Rose Moss’.
o o China: can bloom several times throughout the summer until late autumn. There are 4 types (‘Slater’s Crimson China’ 1792, ‘Rose China Parsons’ 1793, ‘Hume’s Blush China’ 1809 and Yellow Tea Scented China ‘Parks’ 1824) that were introduced to Europe in the late 19th century These types are then glorified in Old Garden roses that can bloom several times, such as ‘Old Chinese Blush’ and ‘Mutabilis’.
- Portland: named in memory of the Duke of Portland receiving roses from Italy in 1800). The roses often called “Portland Rose” (another name: Rosa paestana or “Rose of the Four Seasons”) are the ancestors of Portland roses. Example: “James Veitch,” “Rose de Rescht,” “The Portland Rose.”
- Bourbon: roses from the island of Bourbon (now called Reunion, a French colony in the Indian Ocean) were introduced to France in 1823. The results of the crossing of ‘Autumn Damask’ and ‘Old Blush China’. Flowering several times. Example: ‘Louise Odier’, ‘Mrs. Pierre Oger ‘,’ Zéphirine Drouhin’.
- Perpetual Hybrid: the roses often found in England in the Victorian era are from Bourbon. Flowering several times. Example: ‘Ferdinand Pichard’, ‘Queen of Violets’.
- Tea: Roses from the cross between Hume’s Blush China or Parks’ “Yellow Tea Scented with Yellow Tea” and various types of Bourbon and Hazelnut. Flowering several times, even if it doesn’t always smell good like tea. Example: “Lady Hillingdon.”
- Bermuda – “Mysterious” Roses (Bermuda -“Mysterious” Bermuda): group of several dozen Bermuda roses cultivated for at least a century in Bermuda when they were “discovered”. It is very likely that the Bermuda rose is a branch or cultivar of the old rose garden that was discarded as it was considered unusable. Bermuda roses have great economic value as they can be planted in tropical and semi-tropical regions. This type of rose can bloom in hot and humid weather. Resistant to damage caused by nematodes and black patches that threaten the cultivation of roses in hot and humid climates. Bermuda roses are called “mysterious roses” because the original name of this type is no longer known and receives only a name based on the name of the owner of the park.
Climbing Roses (climbing roses): groups that like to propagate across fences or building canopies, for example: Ayrshire, Climbing China, Laevigata, Sempervirens, Noisette, Boursault, Climbing Tea, and the Bourbon Climbing.
Lophostemon Roses: Groups with the habit of semi-climbing, propagating on fences and building canopies. Flowers are small to moderate, long lasting bloom.
Modern Garden Roses: Descendants of the Old Garden roses and a variety of forms. The group is divided by the size of the plants and the distinctive characteristics of flowers, for example: “Bush plants with large flowers,” Bush plants with large flowers repeatedly, “” group flowers, “” Creatively, flowers repeatedly, “” Short bush, flowering Once. “Most of the cutting-edge model cultivars can be classified into 2 groups:
- Hybrid Tea: The Rose is ideal for cut flowers because one rod can produce 5 to 6 flowers. The flower is large and graceful, having the crown leaves arranged tightly and the edges slightly folded out (see photo), often planted in small gardens and pinned to the suit while attending a wedding ceremony.
- Flormother: A small flower that is a group of 10 flowers or more on one stem. The lush flowers are striking from afar so it’s great to be planted in public parks and other open spaces.
Buck Roses: His name is taken from the name Professor Griffith Buck (horticultural expert from Iowa State University) who glorifies more than 90 varieties of roses. Buck’s roses are resistant to disease and the malignancy of winter.
English Roses: A group that is a hybrid result between Old Garden roses and modern roses. Flowers smell fragrant and flowering repeatedly.
Miniature Roses: Group with mini-sized flowers (2 – 5 cm diameter) and bloom repeatedly. The roses known in Indonesia are largely Hybrid Tea and Medium-type roses.
Species of Roses Flowers In The World
Species roses from Europe:
- o Rosa alba
o Rosa canina
o Rosa gallica
o Rosa chnamomea
o Rosa cettifolia
o Rosa spinosissma
o Rosa wichuraiana
Species roses from Middle East:
- o Rosa fetida
o Rosa fetida bicolor
o Rosa fetida perciana
o Rosa feicikoana
o Rosa damascena
Spesies roses from Chinese:
- o Rosa chinensis
o Rosa liviegata
o Rosa gigantea
o Rosa primula
o Rosa mulluganii
o Rosa sericana pteracantha
o Rosa hugonis
o Rosa banksiae lutea
Spesies roses from Japanese:
- o Rosa roxburghii
o Rosa roxburghii ‘hirthua
o Rosa aciculaisis nipponensis
o Rosa mulitiflora
o Rosa wichuraina
o Rosa rugosa
o Rosa uchiyamana
o Rosa jasminoidesu
o Rosa fujisanesis
Spesies roses from American:
- o Rosa cinemoemea
o Rosa nitida
o Rosa california